Cetyl Myristoleate:
Cetyl Myristoleate is the key ingredient in all of our products. Cetyl myristoleate has multiple biological properties, including as an anti-inflammatory and a pain reliever, as well as being an immune system modulator. As supplied, it is a naturally derived, highly purified, and refined waxy ester prepared for oral administration. Because it is an ester form, highly resistant to oxidation, it has a relatively long life in the body. It is not as well known as glucosamine and/or chondroitin although there is a growing use of cetyl myristoleate in the treatment of the body pains brought on by various maladies such as bursitis, gout, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and sports related injuries. For more information and studies, please check out the references at the bottom of the page.

Glucosamine HCL:
Glucosamine HCL is a natural compound that is found in healthy cartilage. Glucosamine is a normal constituent of glycoaminoglycans in cartilage matrix and synovial fluid. It has been shown through many studies to alleviate pain and help rebuild cartilage. Glucosamine is commonly used in patients with osteoarthritis, and may allow for reduced doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. It is primarily derived from shellfish and has the possibility to create an allergic reaction in people that are sensitive to shellfish.

N-Acetyl Glucosamine:
N-Acetyl Glucosamine is one of the eight essential sugars needed for optimal health and functioning in the human body and like the other glyconutrients promotes communication between the cells. In addition, N-Acetyl Glucosamine has been shown to decrease pain and inflammation, increase range of motion in osteoarthritis patients, and help repair cartilage. N-Acetyl Glucosamine has been shown to repair the mucosal-lining defensive barrier called the glycosaminoglycan layer (GAG).

MSM, methylsulfonylmethane (METH-?l-sul-FON-il-METH-ane) provides sulfur, a vital building block of joints, cartilage, skin, hair and nails, and methyl groups, which support many vital biochemical processes in the body, including energy production. MSM is a naturally occurring nutrient found in small amounts of many foods. As a dietary supplement, MSM is synthesized. When made correctly, it is identical to that found in nature. MSM can be taken alone or in combination with other joint health supplements, such as glucosamine and Cetyl Myristoleate.


Vitamin C (ascorbic Acid):
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, fighting molecules, which trigger rheumatoid inflammation. Vitamin C serves a role as a cofactor in collagen synthesis, the main protein in joint tissue and bone. Vitamin C plays a role in fighting infection and may work to control inflammation.

Hyaluronic Acid (HA):
Hyaluronic acid (also called hyaluronan or HA) is the primary component of the Synovial fluid found in the joints. As we age, hyaluronic acid level drops, which can cause our joints to become weak. Synovial fluid that protects joints is largely made up of hyaluronic acid and acts as a lubricant, shock absorber and nutrient carrier. HA has been shown to be effective in the treatment of different types of arthritis such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Glucosamine sulfate is often combined with hyaluronic acid to create a complete joint support formula.

Lecithin is a fatlike substance called a phospholipid. The liver produces it daily if the diet is adequate. It is needed by every cell in the body and is a key building block of cell membranes; without it, they would harden. Lecithin protects cells from oxidation and largely comprises the protective sheaths surrounding the brain. It is composed mostly of B vitamins, phosphoric acid, choline, linoleic acid and inositol. Although it is a fatty substance, it is also a fat emulsifier.

Vitamin E (tocopheryl acetate):
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. Vitamin E has been proposed for the prevention or treatment of numerous health conditions, often based on its antioxidant properties.

DL-Methionine is an essential amino acid which must be supplied to the body through protein intake. DL-Methionine is necessary for the body to make SAMe. The body combines DL-Methionine with ATP, which in turn produces SAME. SAMe is directl active in 40 biochemical processes and involved indirectly in many more.

Citrus Bioflavonoids:
Citrus fruits are well known for providing ample amounts of vitamin C. But they also supply bioflavonoids, substances that are not required for life but that may improve health as they act as antioxidants. The major bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits are diosmin, hesperidin, rutin, naringin, tangeretin, diosmetin, narirutin, neohesperidin, nobiletin, and quercetin.


Omega 3:
Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids: They are necessary for human health but the body can't make them -- you have to get them through food. Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in fish, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, and nut oils. Research shows that omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation and may help lower risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis (osteoarthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus). Omega-3 fatty acids are highly concentrated in the brain and appear to be important for cognitive (brain memory and performance) and behavioral function as well.

Yucca is a medicinal plant native to Mexico. According to folk medicine, yucca extracts have anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects. The plant contains several physiologically active phytochemicals. It is a rich source of steroidal saponins, and is used commercially as a saponin source. Saponins have diverse biological effects, including anti-protozoal activity. It has been postulated that saponins may have anti-arthritic properties by suppressing intestinal protozoa which may have a role in joint inflammation. Yucca is also a rich source of polyphenolics, including resveratrol and a number of other stilbenes (yuccaols A, B, C, D and E). These phenolics have anti-inflammatory activity. They are inhibitors of the nuclear transcription factor NFkappaB. NFkB stimulates synthesis of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which causes formation of the inflammatory agent nitric oxide. Yucca phenolics are also anti-oxidants and free-radical scavengers, which may aid in suppressing reactive oxygen species that stimulate inflammatory responses.


FOS (Fructooligosaccharides)(Senior Dog product only):
Fructooligosaccharides are used as prebiotics. Prebiotics act as food for "good" bacteria in the intestine. FOS increases the amount of good bacteria in the gut that has been linked to possibly reduce inflammation.

? Murray, M. T. Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements, Prima Publishing, Rocklin, CA 1996 ISBN 0-7615-0410-9, p. 237
? Sobel, D. and Klein, A. C..Arthritis: What Works.St. Martins Press, New York, NY. ISBN 0-312-92719-3 pp.221-225
? Lightfoot, R.W., Jr.: "Intermittent and periodic arthritic syndromes". Arthritic and Allied Conditions. 12Th edition. Edited by D.J. McCarty, W.J. Koopman Phdadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1993.
? Fan, P.T., Yu, D Y,: "Spondyloarthropathies". Textbook of Rheuth-matology., Vol. 1, 4th edition. Edited by, Kelley, W.N., Harris, E.D., Ruddy, S., Jr., Sledge, C.B., Philadelphia W.B. Saunders. 1993.
? Smiley, J.D., "Psoriatic arthritis.", Bulletin of Rheumatic Disease, 44:, 1995.
? Rothman. D., et al. "Botanical Lipids. Effects in Inflammation." Immune Response, and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, October 1995.
? Bucci, L., PhD., "Glycosaminoglycan Supplements as Therapeutic Agents." Nutritional Report, January 1996.
? Kremer, j., Md, "Effects of Modulation of Inflammatory and Immune Parameters in Patients with Rheumatic and Inflammatory Disease Receiving Dietary Supplementation of N-3 and N-6 Fatty Acids." Lipids, 1996.
? Diehl, H., and May, E.L. "Cetyl Myristoleate Isolated from Swiss Albino Mice: An Apparent Protective Agent against Adjuvant Arthritis in Rats." Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, Vol. 83 March 1994.

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